A prelude to serious discussion of the Federalist Papers


I had planned to write a very serious discussion of the Federalist Papers and their influence on the doctrine of limited government.

I decided that I had better prepare an introduction, to put the political issues in context.



































I totally failed at preparing the introduction, though. Maybe I will get to it next time. Did I mention that the above pictures are supposedly of Danish women? Except for one who is supposedly Uralic.

However, since I myself did not prepare, I will quote what someone else posted several weeks ago, in a discussion of some book called “Halbrook,” which I do not own, and will probably never read:

A. The Federalist Papers, No. 28: Alexander Hamilton expressed that when a government betrays the people by amassing too much power and becoming tyrannical, the people have no choice but to exercise their original right of self-defense ¡X to fight the government.[Halbrook, p. 67]

B. The Federalist Papers, No. 29: Alexander Hamilton explained that an armed citizenry was the best and only real defense against a standing army becoming large and oppressive. [Halbrook, p. 67]

C. The Federalist Papers, No. 46: James Madison contended that ultimate authority resides in the people, and that if the federal government got too powerful and overstepped its authority, then the people would develop plans of resistance and resort to arms. [Halbrook, p. 67]

E. The Federalists promised that state governments and citizen militias would exist to make sure the federal military never became large or oppressive. To say that the National Guard replaces the notion of the militia runs contrary to what the Founders said and wrote.

F.John Locke¡Šs Second Treatise of Government (1690) aimed at reforming Britain¡Šs monarchy and parliamentary system and limiting the power of government, and profoundly influenced the Founders and all Western Civilization. John Locke explained that civil government properly exists to more effectively protect the rights that all individuals have in the ¡§state of nature.¡š The individuals have the rights to life, liberty, and property. They give civil government the power over themselves only to the extent that it better protects those rights. Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, specifically declared that the ideas of John Locke¡Šs Second Treatise were ¡§generally approved by the citizens of the United States.¡šJefferson mandated that Locke¡Šs Second Treatise be taught in the University of Virginia.

Let me quote Federalist #46 briefly:

Let a regular army, fully equal to the resources of the country, be formed; and let it be entirely at the devotion of the federal government; still it would not be going too far to say, that the State governments, with the people on their side, would be able to repel the danger.

The highest number to which, according to the best computation, a standing army can be carried in any country, does not exceed one hundredth part of the whole number of souls; or one twenty-fifth part of the number able to bear arms.

This proportion would not yield, in the United States, an army of more than twenty-five or thirty thousand men. To these would be opposed a militia amounting to near half a million of citizens with arms in their hands, officered by men chosen from among themselves, fighting for their common liberties, and united and conducted by governments possessing their affections and confidence.

… Notwithstanding the military establishments in the several kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms. And it is not certain, that with this aid alone they would not be able to shake off their yokes. But were the people to possess the additional advantages of local governments chosen by themselves, who could collect the national will and direct the national force, and of officers appointed out of the militia, by these governments, and attached both to them and to the militia, it may be affirmed with the greatest assurance, that the throne of every tyranny in Europe would be speedily overturned in spite of the legions which surround it. Let us not insult the free and gallant citizens of America with the suspicion, that they would be less able to defend the rights of which they would be in actual possession, than the debased subjects of arbitrary power would be to rescue theirs from the hands of their oppressors. Let us rather no longer insult them with the supposition that they can ever reduce themselves to the necessity of making the experiment, by a blind and tame submission to the long train of insidious measures which must precede and produce it.

Ain’t that a laugh and a half?

Let us not insult the Amurrrrican people by suggesting that they could ever be blind and tame enough to submit to a long train of insidious measures.

And surely, if the central government were ever to have a standing army, it could not possibly be more than 4% of the able-bodied men. It would be opposed by the heavily armed and aerobically fit 96% of the able-bodied men of the country!

I tried to calculate exactly how many able-bodied men are in the USA. I was left at a loss for numbers; I am told that Amurricans are frighteningly obese and aerobically unfit, but I could not discover how many of them are in military uniform, and how many are civilians armed with paramilitary weapons and ID cards for supposedly civilian agencies such as the Department of Agriculture.

Below I quote an example of Amurrican federal government at work:

May 23, 2014 in News

We’re hoping the Cheaper Than Dirt! community can help us understand something: Why is the USDA soliciting the “commerical [sic] acquisition of submachine guns, .40 Cal. S&W?”

Submachine guns for USDA?

That’s what the Department of Agriculture asked for in a May 7 solicitation on FedBizOpps.gov. The website is described as “the single government point-of-entry (GPE) for Federal government procurement opportunities over $25,000. Government buyers are able to publicize their business opportunities by posting information directly to FedBizOpps via the Internet.”

This particular solicitation, Number USDAOIGWEA-5-7-14, was posted by the Department of Agriculture’s Office of the Inspector General, specifically the Procurement Branch of the IG’s office.

The Dept. of Agriculture specified the guns needing an “ambidextrous safety, semi-automatic or 2 shot burts [sic] trigger group, Tritium night sights for front and rear, rails for attachment of flashlight (front under fore grip) and scope (top rear).”

Other specifications include: the stock should be “collapsible or folding,” the magazines should be “30 rd. capacity,” should have fittings for a sling, be light weight, and have an “oversized trigger guard for gloved operation.”

We understand the IG offices have law-enforcement functions and IG agents can be or are armed, but 40-caliber submachine guns seem a little over the top to us.

Emails and phone calls to the procurement management branch have gone unanswered, so we’re looking for some insight about why the “cow cops” might need submachine guns.


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